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Download A Channel Model for Watermarks Subject to Desynchronization by Bauml, Eggers, Tzschoppe, Huber PDF

By Bauml, Eggers, Tzschoppe, Huber

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Extra info for A Channel Model for Watermarks Subject to Desynchronization Attacks

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4 Bandwidth The bandwidth of a circuit is limited by speed limitations of the devices used. Normally, the active devices limit the bandwidth of the circuit. e. supply voltage is 1 V and currents are on the order of and nA), resistors in the range of to become required. As these resistors are on-chip relatively large, the parasitic capacitance to the substrate makes these resistors frequency dependent with a relatively low bandwidth. As a consequence, resistors are also becoming a limiting factor for the bandwidth.

16 CHAPTER 2. 4 Optimization The design of the circuit has now become the search for the optimum solution in the space of circuits which is limited by the three previously mentioned limitations. The optimum solution is a circuit that exactly meets all its design requirements, including the uncertainty introduced by process variation and so on, thus under worst-case conditions. When the solution space is relatively small, the optimum solution can easily be found. However, the space is generally too large to be conquered without a structured search method, for instance, doing an exhaustive search which means that the complete solution space is searched solution by solution.

It will be shown that low-voltage design mainly alters the topology of the circuits, whereas a low-current constraint mainly lowers the performance with respect to noise, distortion and bandwidth. 2 Physical information carriers In an electronic circuit the information can be coded in four different domains. These domains are: voltage; current; charge; flux. Charge, and flux, is fundamentally related to current, is fundamentally related to voltage, via: via: Thus current and voltage can be said to be the prime domains.

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