By Mary A. Carskadon
Teens are one of the so much sleep disadvantaged populations in our society. This ebook explores the genesis and improvement of sleep styles at this section of the existence span. It examines organic and cultural components that effect sleep styles, provides dangers linked to loss of sleep, and divulges the results of environmental elements comparable to paintings and faculty schedules on sleep. This learn will entice psychologists and sociologists of youth who've now not but thought of the $64000 position of sleep within the lives of our adolescence.
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Additional info for Adolescent Sleep Patterns: Biological, Social, and Psychological Influences
30 gary s. richardson and barbara a. tate muscle mass and bone growth, particularly long bone length. This process proceeds until epiphyseal plates in long bones close and terminate long bone growth. The endocrine regulation of these physical changes involves gonadal steroids and growth hormone (GH), which have both additive and independent effects on the adolescent growth spurt. Both GH and sex steroids augment growth during puberty. The increased secretion of sex steroids initiates the pubertal growth spurt in both sexes, with sex steroids modulating the secretion and synthesis of GH (Brook & Hindmarsh, 1992).
Several observations would seem to support the existence of both factors. First, a variety of neuropathologic processes is associated with precocious puberty in children, and this effect can be reproduced with hypothalamic lesions in experimental animal models (Ojeda, 1991). These findings are most consistent with loss of an inhibitory restraint on the pubertal process. , NMDA projections) show that facilitation of this input is sufficient to activate the entire HPG axis. Further, in the rat, transient stimulation with NMDA agonists is sufficient to initiate the pubertal sequence, which is then sustained even after the exogenous stimulation is removed (Ojeda, 1991).
Studies during this juvenile (prepubertal) period have shown that the arrest occurs at the level of GnRH pulse generator. Exogenous override of the inhibition with either gonadotropins or GnRH results in normal response of the lower levels of the sequence, demonstrating that these systems are lacking descending stimulation but are not independently arrested. 34 gary s. richardson and barbara a. tate The precise nature of the “brake” mechanisms by which the GnRH system is restrained remains unclear.