By Peter Diggle, Patrick Heagerty, Kung-Yee Liang, Scott Zeger
The hot variation of this significant textual content has been thoroughly revised and increased to develop into the main up to date and thorough expert reference textual content during this fast-moving and significant region of biostatistics. new chapters were extra on totally parametric types for discrete repeated measures information and on statistical types for time-dependent predictors the place there's suggestions among the predictor and reaction variables. It additionally comprises the various beneficial positive factors of the former version similar to, layout matters, exploratory tools of study, linear versions for non-stop facts, and versions and techniques for dealing with information and lacking values.
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Additional resources for Analysis of Longitudinal Data, Second Edition
This phenomenon is called 'tracking'. Third, the spread among the 48 animals is substantially smaller at the beginning of the study than at the end. This pattern of increasing variance over time could be explained in terms of variation in the growth rates of the individual animals. 1 is an adequate display for exploring these growth data, although it is hard to pick out individual response profiles. We can do slightly better by adding a second display obtained from the first by standardizing each observation.
The degree of correlation decreases as the observations are moved farther from one another in time, which corresponds to moving farther from the diagonal. Notice also that the correlation is reasonably consistent along a diagonal in the matrix. This indicates that the correlation depends more strongly on the time between observations than on their absolute times. If the residuals have constant mean and variance and if Corr(y ii , y ik ) depends only on It ii — t ik I, the process Yii is said to be weakly stationary (Box and Jenkins, 1970).
5 GRAPHICAL P RESENTATION OF LONGITIDIN,\ I. DATA 80 - 'Er, 60 r 40 - 20 2 4 Time (weeks) Fig. 1. Data on the weights of 48 pigs 6 8 over a nine-week period. the repeated observations for each animal. This simple graph makes apparent a number of important patterns. First, all animals are gaining weight. Second, the pigs which are largest at the beginning of the observation period tend to be largest throughout. This phenomenon is called 'tracking'. Third, the spread among the 48 animals is substantially smaller at the beginning of the study than at the end.